Knowledge Exchange: Allocation and Exchange of Airport Access Rights
Allocation and Exchange of Airport Access Rights Workshop
June 6-8, 2007
The Aspen Institute
Wye River Conference Center
Air transportation demand decreases starting in late 2001 relieved the earlier pressure on the
world-wide airspace system and there seemed to be some reduction in the urgency for taking action
to solve the "aviation problem". Recent demand increases have provided a strong reminder that air
transportation demand is rapidly approaching the capacity of the systems on which it is based.
The Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act of December 2003 created a public/private partnership
to carry out a broad range of activities whose ultimate goal is the development of a U.S. Next
Generation Air Transportation System. NextGen is intended to meet the air transportation needs of
the U.S. in the 21st century -- in particular, to accommodate growth in demand for air traffic services
that may result in traffic volumes as large as two or three times today’s levels. In response, the
Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) was established to lead and coordinate the development
of NextGen concepts and plans. The Europeans feel a similar urgency to drastically reform ATM systems
and have established the Single European Sky initiative with goals similar to the JPDO.
This workshop focused specifically on scarce airport capacity. Most would agree that overall
runway capacity is the principal factor constraining future U.S. air transportation demand growth.
Thus, it is important that this resource be put to its best use. Historically, runway capacity has
been formally allocated in only four U.S. airports (Chicago’s O’Hare -- ORD, Washington’s Reagan
National -- DCA and two New York airports: LaGuardia -- LGA and Kennedy -- JFK) through the so-called
"High-Density Rule" (HDR). In fact, this rule was rescinded in 2002 for ORD and for LGA in January of
2007. In anticipation of the expiration of the HDR at LGA, NEXTOR carried out a research project that
investigated a variety of measures for controlling congestion in place of the HDR. Among those considered
were market-based approaches. In August of 2006, the FAA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that
addressed congestion management at LGA. Among other measures, it stipulated that the HDR slots be
replaced with finite lifetime operating authorizations (OA’s) and also expressed the desire to explore
the use of market mechanisms to reallocate OA’s after their expiration. This workshop considered
future congestion management alternatives in light of the NPRM, the reaction of the aviation community
to it as well as recent research on this problem.
Session 1: Congestion and Congestion Management in the U.S. Air Transportation System: Current Status and Historical Perspectives
Capacity Constraints and the Dynamics of Transition in the US Air Transportation System
John Hansman, MIT
Airports: A Historic and Prospective View Dick Marchi, Airports Council International
Session 2: Managing Congestion Using Slots and Slot Exchange Markets
Airport Slot Management in Europe Jaap de Wit, Airneth
History of the Slot Exchange Market in the US and Some Implications
Frank Berardino, GRA, Inc.
Discussion: The Secondary Markets for Slots in the U.S.: Is it working or Not?
Moderator: Michael Ball, University of Maryland
Discussants: Dan Kasper, LECG, LLC; Robert Land, Jetblue Airlines; Jeff Ogar, American Airlines; Julie Oettinger, United Airlines
Session 3: Congestion Management Options and NAS Performance
Optimum Fleet Utilization under Congestion Management at NY LaGuardia Airport
George Donohue, George Mason University
How Over-Scheduling Affects Scheduled Block Times in Different Hub Airports
Itai Ater, Stanford University
Session 4: Airport Operator Perspectives and Experiences
Thomas Bosco, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Massachusetts Port Authority
Department of Aviation, City of Chicago
Keith Wilschetz, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority
Session 5: Congestion Management in Highway Systems
Political Dimensions of Congestion Pricing: the Case of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge
Karen Frick, University of California, Berkeley
Expectations and Results from Congestion Pricing of Highways
Doug Lee, Volpe Transportation Systems Center
Session 6: The Design of Secondary Markets for Slots
The Design of Secondary Markets John Ledyard, California Institute of Technology
Discussion: How can the secondary market for slots in the U.S. be made more effective?
Moderator: Karla Hoffman, George Mason University
Discussants: Ed Faberman, Air Carrier Association of America, Mike Gallagher, Delta Airlines
Evan Kwerel, FCC, Pat Murphy, Gerchick Murphy Associates
Session 7: Recent Research on Congestion Management Issues at LaGuardia Airport
Fleet Mix under Alternative Capacity Allocation Regimes: Recent Evidence
Mark Hansen, University of California, Berkeley
LaGuardia Airport Systems Operations Study: Impact of Airport System Operations in the Presence of Airline Aircraft Upgauging
Lance Sherry, George Mason University
Session 8: Practical Alternatives for Congestion Management
Congestion Management Options: A Toolbox Approach Michael Ball, University of Maryland
Discussion: If you had to fix the congestion problem, which option would you choose and why?
Moderator: Frank Berardino, GRA, Inc.
Discussants: Dave Berg, Air Transport Association, Steve Iverson, American Airlines, Bill Leber,
Northwest Airlines, Bradley Rubinstein,The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Steven Welman, Mitre, CAASD